This is the condition in which one eye differs in color from the other (technically, heterochromia iridum). It is almost always a sporadically occurring, benign phenomenon, unassociated with any other condition, but is on rare occasions linked to other syndromes, notably Waardenburg syndrome and congenital or acquired Horner syndrome.

Heterochromia may also develop later in childhood or adulthood as a result of injury to the eye, bleeding within the eye, inflammation within the eye, eye tumors, or other conditions.

Heterochromia also can refer to the condition in which a portion of an iris differs in color from the remainder (heterochromia iridis).

I have seen the term heterochromia iridis used in some articles to refer to differently colored pupils (heterochromia iridium) as well as differences in color within the same pupil (heterochromia iridis); I am sticking with the iridium-iridis distinction above based on Nelson's Textbook of Pediatrics, but I have found enough cases of the dual use of iridis for one or both irises to think the usage may be quite acceptable.

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